Meeting future transportation low emission targets in a cost-effective manner

Can fuels be developed such that more stringent emission targets can be met without the need for complex and expensive after-treatment devices and injection systems? Can new low cost and reliable after-treatment technologies be developed to help address this challenge? How can low emission vehicles be realized, while using conventional hydrocarbon resources? What technology solutions can be applied to lower the carbon footprint of petroleum derived fuels on a life cycle basis?

The deadline has passed and submissions are no longer being accepted for the 2012 Technology Quest