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Advanced Spark-Ignition engines

Knock represents a barrier to further enhancement of spark-ignition engine efficiency. What are the causes of this phenomenon? What role can the fuel play in mitigating this phenomenon? What is the effect of different lubricants on knock? Can we develop octane enhancers from crude oil based products that are cost-effective, compatible with fuels and engines systems, while at the same time being environmentally safe?

The deadline has passed and submissions are no longer being accepted for the 2012 Technology Quest